(1) common bacterial diseases.
1. Pathogenic bacteria of bacterial root rot are enterobacterium, the genus Eugenia, rod-shaped, and zhou sheng flagellum. In the early stage of infection, white turbid droplets were soaked in the mushroom clusters. The stalks of the mushroom are quickly eroded, brown becomes maltose, and finally dark brown, sticky and smelly. Produce root rot is the basic cause of the pathogen of water directly onto the mushroom body, because the mushroom is very dense, surface area is large, respiration, water can't be lost in time, it produces heat, pathogenic bacteria then infest in warm conditions to grow, produce root rot. The main method of prevention and control is to stop spraying water into the mushroom body. Once the disease occurs, it should be harvested immediately and sprayed with 1.
2. Mold contaminated mold is the main enemy of the mushroom. In winter, the most serious damage to the fungus is wood mould and penicillium.
There are many kinds of wood mildew, such as green wood mould, kang shi musty, polysporus and so on. Easy to mix with penicillium, the appearance color is slightly different, the penicillium infection color is deeper, it is blue-green, and the wood mildew is light, more green or copper green. After training, the microscope view, trichoderma viride hyphae are across, spread growth, flat colony formation, hyphae colorless, conidium of upright stalks sprout up, sterigmata branches into two opposite side again, finally form small terrier, the top of the small terrier has clusters of conidium. Once the fungus is on the mushroom bed, it will be extended to the child.
Penicillium, which is widely spread in natural environment, is highly susceptible to infection. The condition is suitable for 1-2d spore germination into mycelium, and quickly developed into white mycelium. It was difficult to identify in the early stages, until a lot of green spores were grown and when they were exposed to blue-green pollution areas with irregular shapes and sizes, the ability was found. Once that happens, it's extremely fast. It often happens after the first mushroom.
After the fungus contamination in the fungus bed, the culture medium should be removed as soon as possible. Enhance the ventilation of the mushroom bed, do not spray water to the mushroom body during the mushroom, avoid the bacterial disease of the mushroom cluster, and promote mold breeding because of the improvement of the bed temperature.
(2) common pests such as mosquito, mushroom and mites.
Most of these pests occur in the later stage of production, because the pre-cultivation temperature is low, and these pests are not easy to occur. Control method, is the production of late (mushroom room temperature increased to more than 18 ℃), preventable in mushroom spraying some insecticidal, acaricidal agent inside the room.
(3) comprehensive control measures for disease and insects.
In order to control the growth of mushroom and mushroom, a series of active ecological control methods were adopted.
1. Low temperature cultivation of almost all of the bacterial spores, spore, or its dormancy, at 24 ℃ above germination ability. And needle mushroom mycelium in 7-11 ℃ low temperature conditions grow well, combined with the needle mushroom and fungus, low-temperature consolidate so needle mushroom cultivation in low temperature condition. And low temperature cultivation is the most important means to control pests and diseases.
2. The hyphae of the hygrophytic bacteria is 1:0 in the feed water. 5-1-0. Under 9 conditions, it can continue to grow, and the ratio is 1:1 to 1:1. At the time of 5, the growth is relatively fast, and the other bacteria are not easily polluted, and the water ratio is 1:2. At the time of 1, the mycelium was stagnant and all the bacteria were polluted. This is because the substrates too much water, dilute the concentration of bacteria somatoplasm, loss of ability to resist, tingible miscellaneous bacterium, second substrates water too much, will cause the lack of air, make mycelial respiration is restrained, leading to premature aging hyphae and dye. Therefore, it is necessary to control the water ratio in the mix. During the growth of mycelium, the air humidity in the culture room should be suitable; Do not spray water into the mushroom bed during the mushroom. These methods can help the mycelium grow and flourish. The mushroom grows and thrives.